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Depends on how active (mobile) you are. I would ask your surgeon.
Stockings are helpful in terms of deep vein thrombosis prevention as long as
you are not up and ambulatory fully. If you can cough without pain or holding your
abdomen, then you are probably out of the increased risk zone.
At least a week until you are fully ambulatory.
This is really a question for your surgeon and perhaps your primary care provider. There are a number of reasons why a doctor might require compression hose post-operatively. Most immediately, the reason for lower extremity compression after surgery is to help prevent blood clots. Not knowing your specific case, the type of surgery you had, whether or not you have any clot risk factors makes it virtually impossible to advise you on this issue. You should, as I say, consult with your surgeon, your hospitalist (if you've been assigned one) and your primary care provider for an informed answer to your question.
It is a good idea to wear them while you are recovering and then some. The post operative period is often considered three months but once you have resumed full activity, normal diet and exercise you can stop. I usually recommend all my patients wear knee high compression hose if they become less active, travel by car/plane just as a general rule. Follow your surgeon's recommendations.
You should wear compression socks as long as you are spending time off of your feet. Once you become progressively more ambulatory, then you can reduce the time that they are worn. In general, wearing them for 2 to 3 weeks post abdominal surgery is usually sufficient.